c;10 SPINELESS HEDGEHOGS CH The under surface of the tail is rough, and it is thought Dr. Blanford that it may be of use to the animal in climbi Its compressed terminal third and the fringe of stiff bristles the under surface of this indicate, according to Dr. Bobs powers of swimming, or at any rate a not very remote ances of swimming creatures. It is purely insectivorous in diet. Erinac&us, including the Hedgehogs, is a widely distribu genus—Palaearctic, Oriental, and Ethiopian in range. There about twenty species. The familiar spines distinguish the Hed hogs from their allies, as also the fact that they possess but thir six teeth, the formula being I -| C -J- Prn f M -f. There are fift« or fourteen ribs, and the tail is very short, consisting of o twelve vertebrae. As in Gymnura there is no caecum. The up canine has usually, as in other Erinaceidae, two roots, but not JS1 europaeus, which is one of the most modified of Hedgehogs, The Hedgehog is a more omnivorous creature than Gymni It eats not only insects and slugs, but also chickens and yoi game birds, and lastly vipers. Four, or in some cases as m: as five or six, young are produced at a birth; they are bl with soft and flexible white spines. In hot and dry weal Hedgehogs disappear; they come forth in rainy weather. ' English Hedgehog, as is well known, hibernates. The Ind species do not. The Hedgehog is occasionally spineless, wt condition may be regarded as an atavistic reversion.1 The Hedgehog has acquired the reputation of carrying off ap1 transfixed upon its spines. Blumenbach thus quaintly descr this and other habits of the animal, whose English name he g: as " hedgidog '*: " II se nourrit des productions des deux reg organises, miauie comme un chat, et peut avaler une quan e"norme de mouches cantharides. II est certain qu'il pique fruits avec les e*pines de son dos, et les porte ainsi dans terrier."2 The Miocene JPalaeoerinaceus is so little different f Erinaceus that it is really hardly generically separa JSrinaceuA is therefore clearly one of the oldest living gei of mammals. Necrogymnura, of the same epoch and the same beds (Qm phosphorites) is doubtless an ancestral form. The palate 1 See tfatitral Science, xiii. 1898, p. 156. st. Ned. French trans, by Artaud, 1803.